It’s just two weeks since she missed her period.
And the news of her pregnancy has sprung up so much joy in our home.
Just the other day, my wife told me the names she wanted for our babies.
Yes, babies because, through faith, she believed she would be having twins.
But the devil struck.
In the early hours of the morning, while easing herself, she saw a lump of blood.
When she told me, I thought it was nothing serious, or maybe she is joking as usual (because we play a lot).
But the reality did set in when I saw bloodstains on her night wears.
At this point, I was devastated.
I could imagine what she was going through and tried to give my wife all the support she needed.
As a practicing medical doctor of over eight years, I have seen and counseled multiple cases of miscarriages.
But, this is the first time I understood the true emotional impact of a miscarriage.
The most damning part of a miscarriage is that it erases the confidence of women.
It makes you feel you are not capable of having and keeping a pregnancy.
That’s just how my wife is feeling now, and I have tried to make her understand that “all is well.”
I am writing this post with a huge pain in my heart.
But I believe someone, somewhere is also dealing with a miscarriage.
If you are struggling with a miscarriage (or any of the signs), be positive.
There are many encouraging bible verses for a miscarriage to strengthen you today.
Recommended for you
- Bible verses about death of a Friend
- Short prayer for the death of a child
- Want to Get Pregnant? Powerful Prayer for a Baby girl
Bible verses for miscarriage
1. Psalm 34:18-19
The Lord is close to the brokenhearted and saves those who are crushed in spirit. The righteous person may have many troubles,but the Lord delivers him from them all;
Experiencing the loss of an unborn child is immeasurably painful. In these moments, solace can be found in Psalm 34:18-19. It affirms, “The Lord is close to the brokenhearted and saves those who are crushed in spirit.” This scripture underscores God’s compassionate presence. He is not distant but intimately close to those grieving.
This sentiment echoes in Psalm 147:3. It reinforces God as the ultimate comforter, healing the brokenhearted, binding up their wounds. These scriptures resonate a shared message – you are not alone. Your feelings of desolation are familiar to Him.
In Matthew 5:4, Jesus promises comfort to those mourning, extending this solace to parents mourning the loss of an unborn child. Life’s journey presents hardships, and these trials can feel overwhelming. However, Psalm 34:18-19 offers reassurance. God, our deliverer, guides us safely through life’s stormiest seas.
Hard as it is, this scripture gently encourages patience and unwavering faith during heartache. It is an invitation to trust that God sees, knows, and delivers.
Biblical accounts echo this truth. King David, in his intense sorrow over the loss of his infant son, found solace in God. His faith held firm, trusting God’s comfort and deliverance during his darkest hour.
Modern stories mirror this Biblical narrative. Notably, Carrie Underwood openly discussed her miscarriages. Her pain was raw, yet her faith was her anchor. She leaned on God, finding His comforting presence amid mourning.
In sum, Psalm 34:18-19, complemented by scriptures like Psalm 147:3 and Matthew 5:4, offers hope. God understands your pain, and He will deliver you from your troubles. This message instills patience and faith. Like David and Carrie Underwood, you too can find comfort in His embrace.
2. Ecclesiastes 11:5
As you do not know the path of the wind,
or how the body is formed in a mother’s womb,
so you cannot understand the work of God,
the Maker of all things.
Life can sometimes confront us with harsh realities. The loss of an unborn child is such an experience – it stings like winter’s frost, stealing joy, leaving an aching void. Amid this deep sorrow, Ecclesiastes 11:5 echoes a gentle reassurance, reminding us of the unknowable nature of God’s designs.
Consider the miracle of life forming within the womb – a mystery referenced by Solomon in Ecclesiastes. It’s an intricate marvel, speaking volumes of God’s beyond-human-comprehension craftsmanship.
The prophecy of Isaiah (Isaiah 55:8-9) strengthens this, proclaiming God’s thoughts and ways to be higher than ours, just as the heavens tower over the earth.
In the face of such great loss, these verses encourage acceptance. We’re nudged to accept that some aspects of life, including the bitter pain of loss, are indeed mysteries.
Sometimes, the “why” of certain events, like the painful sting of a miscarriage, remain unanswered. It’s here where we find the courage to trust in the God who is beyond our comprehension, yet intimately close to our pain.
In our times, many stories echo this trust. Author Adriel Booker is a poignant example. In her book, “Grace Like Scarlett: Grieving with Hope after Miscarriage and Loss,” she recounts her miscarriage experiences.
Her narrative extends a lifeline to others engulfed in similar storms of loss. She reaffirms the concept, encapsulated in John 3:8, that our comprehension falls short of God’s ways. Yet, His Spirit is an undeniable reality, as real as the unseen wind.
Ecclesiastes 11:5 reassures us that we’re part of a divine story, crafted by a caring Creator. Despite the weight of our grief, we can find solace in His promises. I’ve found leaning into this truth brings peace, even amidst pain.
We’re faced with a choice – a choice to be humble, to trust in God’s divine providence, even when our lives quake under sorrow. In this choice, we find an anchor for our grieving hearts.
Ultimately, it isn’t about possessing all answers. It’s about knowing the One who does. As we navigate the terrain of loss, may we find comfort in the truth that God’s wisdom and love far surpass our deepest hurt.
3. Romans 8:18
I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us.
The heartrending experience of losing an unborn child leaves many searching for solace. Romans 8:18 shines as a beacon of hope: “Our present sufferings aren’t worth comparing with the future glory that will be revealed in us.”
Job’s story in the Bible mirrors this verse. Job suffered greatly, losing family, health, and wealth. Despite this, he remained hopeful, trusting in God’s plan. Ultimately, God bestowed upon Job immense blessings, affirming that our current suffering pales compared to the glory to come.
2 Corinthians 4:17-18 further echoes this sentiment. It guides us to shift our focus from the temporary trials to the eternal glory that outweighs them. This notion comforted Tim Tebow’s parents during a challenging pregnancy. They faced a tough choice when doctors recommended abortion.
Instead, they chose faith, resilience, and trust in God’s plan. Today, their son stands as a testament to their faith, underscoring the value of every life.
Romans 8:18 reassures us that trials bear purpose and meaning. It shifts our focus from the temporal to the eternal. As 1 Peter 5:10 affirms, “After you have suffered a little while, the God of all grace… will himself restore, confirm, strengthen, and establish you.”
Faith, I believe, is about being okay no matter how things turn out. It’s about finding solace in God’s steadfast promises. Romans 8:18 encourages this resilience, offering comfort in the certainty of future glory.
Our present trials are momentary. They are fleeting in the face of eternal joy. This belief is our guiding light through our darkest hours. It leads us towards the dawn of a new day, a future filled with hope and promise.
In summary, our hardships today are minuscule compared to the joy awaiting us. Let’s hold onto hope, strength, and resilience, trusting in God’s eternal promise of glory. Our current suffering is temporary; the glory to come is eternal and far exceeds our present trials.
4. Isaiah 41:10
So do not fear, for I am with you;
do not be dismayed, for I am your God.
I will strengthen you and help you;
I will uphold you with my righteous right hand.
In the midst of the profound grief that follows the loss of an unborn child, Isaiah 41:10 offers a beacon of hope. This divine message is potent. It promises strength, reassurance, and companionship. It also underscores faith’s enduring flame.
Isaiah’s verse serves as a lifeline for those mourning this heartbreaking loss. It resonates, “Fear not, for I am with you; Be not dismayed, for I am your God.” Such profound words affirm God’s unwavering presence. They provide strength when it’s needed the most.
Companion scriptures, Deuteronomy 31:6 and Joshua 1:9, echo this reassurance. They repeat, “Be strong and courageous,” reminding us of God’s perpetual support. Together, these scriptures weave a comforting tapestry of divine strength and courage.
The biblical account of Sarah’s prolonged childlessness is a vivid example. After decades of waiting, Sarah’s faith in God’s promises remained unshaken. Her story climaxes with Isaac’s birth, a testimony to God’s ability to bring joy from sorrow.
This story is a lesson in faith and perseverance. Even in her barrenness, Sarah trusted God’s providence. Her resilience is a powerful model for those navigating sorrow.
Remember, you are not alone in your grief. As God was with Sarah and Joshua, He is with you. He provides strength during challenging times. Cling to this promise. Allow it to infuse courage and alleviate fear. This, too, underscores faith in God’s sustaining power.
The grief of loss is profound, but so is God’s love and comfort. Isaiah 41:10 reminds us of this truth. So, let us draw solace from His promise, find comfort in His words, and maintain faith in His power.
5. Exodus 23:26
and none will miscarry or be barren in your land. I will give you a full life span.
In the labyrinth of heartbreak that trails miscarriage or loss of an unborn child, solace can be elusive. But a glimmer of hope can be found in Exodus 23:26. A verse of promise and future blessings, it’s a beacon for the faithful, including those yearning for a successful pregnancy.
The verse’s essence lies in the promise of God’s blessings, particularly fertility and healthy childbirth. You might ask, “How can this comfort me?” Let’s explore together.
Holding onto hope in the wake of loss is daunting, almost like chasing a mirage. But Exodus 23:26 offers a different lens. It reassures us that present grief isn’t a barrier to future blessings. This idea finds resonance in Deuteronomy 7:14, affirming that blessings extend to fertility and childbirth.
Hannah’s tale from 1 Samuel 1:1-20 illuminates this promise. Barren for years, she poured her heart to God in prayer. Her faith paved the way for Samuel’s birth, a testament to the power of persistent hope and faith.
The verse reassures us that God’s blessings are never permanently withheld. Mourning might endure for a night, but joy arrives with the morning. It emphasizes that our narrative isn’t solely defined by our losses.
Exodus 23:26 doesn’t shield us from pain or loss. Rather, it offers assurance that God’s blessings persist amidst trials. It inspires faith, nurtures hope, and reinforces trust in God’s grand design.
In essence, Exodus 23:26 provides a lifeline for those grappling with loss. Much like Hannah and Michelle Duggar, it encourages us to find comfort and strength in the promise of future blessings, even in the darkest valleys of loss.
6. Jeremiah 1:5
“Before I formed you in the womb I knew[a] you,
before you were born I set you apart;
I appointed you as a prophet to the nations.”
The profound scripture of Jeremiah 1:5 is a beacon of solace in the tumultuous sea of loss. It states, “Before I formed you in the womb I knew you…” Envision a potter working. Each detail in the clay is by design. This mirrors God’s intimate knowledge of us.
From conception, God knows us. I glean from this fact an unimaginable comfort, especially for those grieving the loss of an unborn child. Their heartbreak is intense, yet the knowledge that God knew their child, even unborn, offers solace.
The verse in Jeremiah not only promises God’s knowledge, but also declares each life’s divine purpose. This is echoed in Isaiah 44:2, “This is what the Lord says— he who made you, who formed you in the womb…” It’s a powerful reminder of God’s role in our creation.
God appointed Jeremiah a prophet before birth, indicating that every child, born or unborn, is part of God’s grand design. To comprehend this deep truth, we need to see each life, no matter how brief, as purposeful and significant.
In times of sorrow, it’s easy to feel alone. Remember, you and your child are known by God. This realization can offer a connection to the divine, affirming your child’s significance.
The pain of losing an unborn child is vast. Yet, amid grief, there is comfort in Jeremiah 1:5. Your child was known, purposed, and cherished by God. This scripture becomes a divine comforter, whispering, “I am here. I understand. I care.”
In summary, Jeremiah 1:5 provides comfort, affirming the divine knowledge and purpose for every life. It’s a beacon of hope and solace, a reminder that each life, regardless of its brevity, holds great value in God’s eyes. An anchor in the storm, this scripture invites grieving parents to find peace in the divine truth: God knew their child.
7. Psalm 139:13-16
For you created my inmost being;
you knit me together in my mother’s womb.
14 I praise you because I am fearfully and wonderfully made;
your works are wonderful,
I know that full well.
15 My frame was not hidden from you
when I was made in the secret place,
when I was woven together in the depths of the earth.
16 Your eyes saw my unformed body;
all the days ordained for me were written in your book
before one of them came to be.
Experiencing the loss of an unborn child can leave one drowning in profound sorrow. In such times, Psalm 139:13-16 offers a comforting lifeline.
This scripture reveals God’s close involvement in our creation. From our earliest beginnings, He was there, intimately involved in every detail. Every life, no matter how brief, holds divine value. As Job 31:15 underscores, God is the universal architect of life. His hand fashions us in the womb, laying the foundation of our existence.
In loss, we often feel untethered. Yet, the divine anchor holds. God’s care reaches into every life stage, including the moments within the womb. Isaiah 49:1 affirms this truth. He knows us, names us, even before our birth.
A prime biblical illustration is John the Baptist’s birth. Foretold by Gabriel, John’s purpose was etched out in the heavens, even before his birth. Luke 1:13-17 outlines this divine plan. It emphasizes God’s orchestration in every life, including those unborn.
In grief, Psalm 139 urges us to trust God’s wisdom, even when our understanding falters. It encourages us to lean into God’s providence. No pain is too deep, no loss too great for divine healing. His wisdom transcends ours.
Following the loss of an unborn child, these verses offer solace. They affirm God’s intimate knowledge of our children. His touch was there from creation, providing care and cherishing.
These scriptures stand as divine lighthouses in the storm of grief. They broadcast a message of hope, love, and unbroken connection with the divine.
As you navigate this painful journey, I hope that these verses provide solace. They are a testament to divine love and purpose, a reminder that we’re not alone in our sorrow. May they bring peace to your heart in these trying times.
8. Jeremiah 29:11
For I know the plans I have for you,” declares the Lord, “plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you hope and a future.
The Holy Scripture – Jeremiah 29:11 – offers solace to those grappling with the loss of an unborn child. This divine verse affirms God’s well-meaning plans for us. It assures us of a future filled with hope, despite the heartache we experience.
Grief can lead us to feel adrift, but Jeremiah 29:11 serves as a beacon. It echoes God’s promise that His plans are for our good. Proverbs 3:5-6 supplements this assurance. It urges us to trust God’s grand plan, even when our hearts question why.
As humans, our understanding is finite. Isaiah 55:9 highlights this, stating that God’s thoughts and ways surpass ours. These verses together underscore divine providence, lending comfort even in loss.
Let’s look at Joseph’s story in Genesis. Despite numerous trials, Joseph’s trust in God never wavered. His story culminated in the realization of God’s beneficial plan for him. Similarly, God’s plans for us persist, even amidst our pain.
Divine providence assures us that our grief is not in vain. It is a piece in a grand puzzle, a part of God’s intricate plan. The full picture may not be visible now, but in due time, it will be.
Jeremiah 29:11 stands as a beacon of hope. It promises a future, a crucial element in healing. Tomorrow holds new opportunities, a divine assurance of a future filled with hope.
In conclusion, in our time of loss, verses like Jeremiah 29:11 offer strength, comfort, and hope. Our grief is recognized and understood. Let us take heart: even in sorrow, God’s plans for our welfare persist.
9. Matthew 18:14
In the same way your Father in heaven is not willing that any of these little ones should perish.
Navigating grief following a miscarriage or the loss of an unborn baby can be arduous. The Bible, however, offers profound solace. In particular, Matthew 18:14, captures the essence of God’s compassionate care for His children. These words, spoken by Jesus, affirm that it’s not God’s intention for any of His “little ones” to perish.
These words can assure those experiencing grief. They underscore that God’s intention is not for His creations to simply disappear. Each life, no matter how brief, matters to Him.
Now, if we broaden our view to include other scriptures like Ezekiel 18:23 and 2 Peter 3:9, our understanding deepens. Ezekiel 18:23 expresses God’s preference for life and His wish for everyone to prosper. This reaffirms His care for all His creations.
2 Peter 3:9, on the other hand, highlights God’s patience and His desire for all to repent. It reemphasizes God’s love and intent for life. Together with Matthew 18:14, these verses portray God as a loving Father, who grieves for each life lost.
When I consider these scriptures in relation to King David’s story from 2 Samuel 12, their message becomes even clearer.
David mourned the loss of his newborn child, yet found solace in his faith. He believed he would meet his child again. This demonstrates the truth at the heart of Matthew 18:14 – every life, regardless of its length, holds worth in God’s eyes.
In essence, God’s love encompasses all His children, even those lost before birth. These verses remind grieving parents of His protective care. The sorrow may linger, but the knowledge of your child’s significance to God can provide comfort.
I hope these reflections offer solace, reminding you of the value God places on each life. Despite our losses and unanswered questions, our faith can find refuge in the belief of God’s grander plans. Your child mattered to God and continues to do so. It’s this assurance where I find peace, and hopefully, you will too.
10. Romans 8:28
And we know that in all things God works for the good of those who love him, who have been called according to his purpose.
Romans 8:28 is a beacon of hope. Amidst the heartbreak of a miscarriage, it offers a lifeline. Its promise is constant, even in the harshest realities of loss. I’ve seen this truth echoed in many lives and experienced it personally.
Our deepest sorrows often hide unanticipated blessings. God’s love for us remains steadfast, transforming our pain into a roadmap to grace. This truth reverberates in Jeremiah 29:11, where God assures us of His benevolent intentions. Even through the anguish of loss, He sows seeds of hope, instilling faith in His plans for our future.
One may question how good can arise from a miscarriage. I encourage you to delve into the story of Ruth. She faced desolation and sorrow, but her faith led to an extraordinary lineage, including King David and Jesus Christ. This tale shows us that God can mold our suffering into a larger divine plan.
When we face loss, 1 Corinthians 2:9 invites us to hold onto our faith. It reassures us that God’s redemptive power transcends our understanding. Our pain is not pointless; it’s a crucial part of divine alchemy. It’s the raw material God uses to deepen our faith and foster our growth.
In summary, Romans 8:28, Jeremiah 29:11, and 1 Corinthians 2:9 underscore a vital truth. Our losses do not diminish God’s love or alter His plans for us. They’re woven into His grand tapestry.
Every tear shed, every heartache endured, falls under His compassionate gaze. The full picture may elude us now, but one day, it will unfurl. And it will be beautiful. As He promised.
Romans 9:11 – Romans 9:11 (NIV)
1 Samuel 1:27-28 – 1 Samuel 1:27-28 (NIV)
Isaiah 55:8-9 – Isaiah 55:8-9 (NIV)
2 Corinthians 1:3-5 – 2 Corinthians 1:3-5 (NIV)
Philippians 4:6-7 – Philippians 4:6-7 (NIV)
Recommended for you
- Bible verses about death of a Friend
- Short prayer for the death of a child
- Want to Get Pregnant? Powerful Prayer for a Baby girl
Comfort for miscarriage during this trying time
1. Miscarriage is spiritual
I am a medical doctor, and I have come to see lots of women struggling with one, two or three consecutive miscarriages
Medically, we know most miscarriages happen because of abnormal genetic profiles of the growing baby.
But, as a Christian, I know it is more than that.
A miscarriage is highly spiritual and is a tool of the devil.
But sometimes, God allows us to deal with these temptations.
Yes, we pray “lead us not into temptations.”
But it’s God’s mercy that we are or are not tempted.
God has created us in his image and likeness.
He knows all we are going through.
Right from inside the womb, he knows when a baby develops.
I refuse to believe that a miscarriage happens without God’s approval.
Therefore, If you are feeling depressed about miscarriage bleeding, stay strong.
God is our refuge and strength, an ever-present help in trouble. Therefore we will not fear, though the earth give way and the mountains fall into the heart of the sea, though its waters roar and foam and the mountains quake with their surging.
2. Believe in God to keep your pregnancy
My wife is a very devoted Christian woman.
Each day she prays at least three times.
But that’s not all.
She works with the church choir and is very devoted to God’s service.
I felt touched when she woke up in the morning (after noticing signs of miscarriage) and went to the church.
She told me she is going for evangelism.
In other words, she is going to preach to convert more souls for Christ.
I knew as a medical doctor that she needed to have lots of rest (At least that’s what we advise women with signs of a miscarriage).
But this time, I had faith in God.
We know that God will take away any form of illness if we serve him.
After all, in my experience, bed rest does not always stop a miscarriage from happening.
God confirmed in his word,
And ye shall serve the Lord your God, and he shall bless thy bread, and thy water; and I will take sickness away from the midst of thee
3. Pray to God to stop your miscarriage signs
A prayerful woman has the power to stop a miscarriage.
Yes, God knows the best, but don’t assume until you’ve prayed.
I read about the death of David’s son with the widowed wife of Uriah.
David had just killed an innocent man and married his wife.
But even when it is evident that God’s judgment was for the Adulterous son was to die, David still prayed, day and night, for seven days.
That’s how you should commit yourself and your family in prayers.
There are many obvious signs of miscarriage such as vaginal spotting, heavy vaginal bleeding, not experiencing pregnancy symptoms anymore, or lower abdominal pain.
But do not be afraid.
Commit every situation into God’s hand and watch him take control.
Since yesterday, my wife has been in prayers. We prayed in the morning trusting in God for a miracle.
Until now, she has not seen any vaginal bleeding or had belly cramps.
Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. 7 And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus.
4. Trusting God after a miscarriage
I know within myself that God’s plans are unsearchable to man.
Yes, we may understand the physical things of this world, but there is a vast spiritual undertone.
If it’s God’s will that you’ve had a miscarriage, don’t lose hope.
Remember Pauls’s encouraging words.
And we know that in all things God works for the good of those who love him, who have been called according to his purpose.
God bless you.
Frequently Asked Questions
What do you say to someone that lost a child?
Experiencing the loss of a child is heartbreaking. To console someone enduring this pain, an empathetic and sincere message is crucial.
You might express, “Your child’s life was a blessing, impacting many others in ways you might not realize.”
Scripture also provides comfort, with Revelation 21:4 promising a future free from sorrow and death, a reassurance that the current order of things will pass.
What Scripture says can a mother forget her child?
A mother’s love is potent, and Isaiah 49:15 illustrates this beautifully. The scripture asks, “Can a mother forget her baby?” It parallels maternal love with God’s steadfast love for us, affirming that even if a mother forgets, God will not.
What do you say to a grieving mother?
Comforting a grieving mother requires empathy and presence. Expressing, “I can’t comprehend your pain, but I’m here with you,” provides comfort.
Lamentations 3:31-32 offer a valuable reminder that God’s love is unfailing, and He will show compassion even in times of grief.
What is a good Bible verse for someone who has lost a child?
Scriptures such as Matthew 5:4 and 2 Corinthians 1:3-4 provide comfort to those who have lost a child. The first affirms the blessing and comfort received in mourning, while the latter highlights God as the ultimate source of comfort in every affliction.
What is the Bible verse for the loss of a baby?
The loss of a baby is heart-wrenching. Jeremiah 1:5 offers consolation, emphasizing that every life, however brief, is known and cherished by God.
How do you pray to comfort the loss of a baby?
Prayer brings solace in sorrow. A comforting prayer might include asking for God’s comfort and peace for those mourning a baby’s loss, emphasizing God’s loving presence and offering hope for the future.
What is the baby miscarriage prayer?
A prayer following a miscarriage might express profound sadness for the lost life, request divine comfort and healing, and affirm trust in God’s promises, ultimately seeking peace in His love.
How do you pray for a grieving mother who lost a child through miscarriage?
Praying for a mother who lost a child through miscarriage might involve seeking divine comfort and strength for her, reminding her of God’s promises, and reassuring her that she’s not alone in her grief.
What Psalm is comfort in grief?
Which Bible verses provide solace for the loss of an unborn baby?
For those mourning the loss of an unborn child, Psalms 139:13-16 can offer consolation. These verses confirm each life’s value, born or unborn, affirming that God knows every individual even before birth.
What is a good Bible verse to find comfort after experiencing a miscarriage?
Job 1:21 can comfort those experiencing a miscarriage, acknowledging the painful reality of loss but encouraging acceptance and faith in God’s dominion over life and death.
Are there any Bible verses believed to prevent miscarriage?
Is miscarriage considered a punishment from God according to Christian beliefs?
Christian beliefs do not see miscarriage as God’s punishment. Psalm 34:18 emphasizes God’s role as a comforting presence in times of suffering and grief, rather than a punitive figure.
Are there any specific Bible verses about miscarriage in the King James Version (KJV)?
Hosea 9:14 in the King James Version is a prophetic verse illustrating Israel’s spiritual barrenness, not a general pronouncement about miscarriage.
The prophetic literature uses metaphors to convey the spiritual condition of the people. It is crucial to remember that Christian teachings present God as compassionate and loving, offering comfort in times of loss.
At The Faithful Christian Blog, I create authentic and inspiring content. Although I am the main author, I occasionally use AI for minor language enhancements. This minimal AI usage ensures high-quality, trustworthy articles without compromising originality or sincerity, ultimately supporting our shared faith journey.
Dr. Akatakpo Dunn